【计算机系统导论】8.3 分布式计算

hadoop, spark 的模型及背后的思想,参考项目和之前的博客


在计算机科学中,分布式计算(英语:Distributed computing),又译为分散式運算。这个研究领域,主要研究分布式系统(Distributed system)如何进行计算。分布式系统是一组电脑(computer),通过网络相互链接传递消息与通信后并协调它们的行为而形成的系统。[1]组件之间彼此进行交互以实现一个共同的目标。把需要进行大量计算的工程数据分区成小块,由多台计算机分别计算,再上传运算结果后,将结果统一合并得出数据结论的科学。分布式系统的例子来自有所不同的面向服务的架构,大型多人在线游戏,对等网络应用。
目前常见的分布式计算项目通常使用世界各地上千万志愿者计算机的闲置计算能力,通过互联网进行数据传输(志愿计算)。如分析计算蛋白质的内部结构和相关药物的Folding@home项目,该项目结构庞大,需要惊人的计算量,由一台电脑计算是不可能完成的。虽然现在有了计算能力超强的超级计算机,但这些设备造价高昂,而一些科研机构的经费却又十分有限,借助分布式计算可以花费较小的成本来达到目标。

参考课件吧。


A Distributed Systems Reading List https://dancres.github.io/Pages/

Introduction

I often argue that the toughest thing about distributed systems is changing the way you think. The below is a collection of material I’ve found useful for motivating these changes.

Thought Provokers

Ramblings that make you think about the way you design. Not everything can be solved with big servers, databases and transactions.

Harvest, Yield and Scalable Tolerant Systems - Real world applications of CAP from Brewer et al
On Designing and Deploying Internet Scale Services - James Hamilton
Latency Exists, Cope! - Commentary on coping with latency and it’s architectural impacts
Latency - the new web performance bottleneck - not at all new (see Patterson), but noteworthy
The Perils of Good Abstractions - Building the perfect API/interface is difficult
Chaotic Perspectives - Large scale systems are everything developers dislike - unpredictable, unordered and parallel
Website Architecture - A collection of scalable architecture papers from various of the large websites
Data on the Outside versus Data on the Inside - Pat Helland
Memories, Guesses and Apologies - Pat Helland
SOA and Newton’s Universe - Pat Helland
Building on Quicksand - Pat Helland
Why Distributed Computing? - Jim Waldo
A Note on Distributed Computing - Waldo, Wollrath et al
Stevey’s Google Platforms Rant - Yegge’s SOA platform experience
Amazon

Somewhat about the technology but more interesting is the culture and organization they’ve created to work with it.

A Conversation with Werner Vogels - Coverage of Amazon’s transition to a service-based architecture
Discipline and Focus - Additional coverage of Amazon’s transition to a service-based architecture
Vogels on Scalability
SOA creates order out of chaos @ Amazon
Google

Current “rocket science” in distributed systems.

MapReduce
Chubby Lock Manager
Google File System
BigTable
Data Management for Internet-Scale Single-Sign-On
Dremel: Interactive Analysis of Web-Scale Datasets
Large-scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications
Megastore: Providing Scalable, Highly Available Storage for Interactive Services - Smart design for low latency Paxos implementation across datacentres.
Spanner - Google’s scalable, multi-version, globally-distributed, and synchronously-replicated database.
Photon - Fault-tolerant and Scalable Joining of Continuous Data Streams. Joins are tough especially with time-skew, high availability and distribution.
Mesa: Geo-Replicated, Near Real-Time, Scalable Data Warehousing - Data warehousing system that stores critical measurement data related to Google’s Internet advertising business.
eBay

Interesting they dumped most of J2EE and use a lot of db partitioning. Check out their site upgrade tool as well.

SD Forum 2006
Consistency Models

Key to building systems that suit their environments is finding the right tradeoff between consistency and availability.

CAP Conjecture - Consistency, Availability, Parition Tolerance cannot all be satisfied at once
Consistency, Availability, and Convergence - Proves the upper bound for consistency possible in a typical system
CAP Twelve Years Later: How the “Rules” Have Changed - Eric Brewer expands on the original tradeoff description
Consistency and Availability - Vogels
Eventual Consistency - Vogels
Avoiding Two-Phase Commit - Two phase commit avoidance approaches
2PC or not 2PC, Wherefore Art Thou XA? - Two phase commit isn’t a silver bullet
Life Beyond Distributed Transactions - Helland
If you have too much data, then ‘good enough’ is good enough - NoSQL, Future of data theory - Pat Helland
Starbucks doesn’t do two phase commit - Asynchronous mechanisms at work
You Can’t Sacrifice Partition Tolerance - Additional CAP commentary
Optimistic Replication - Relaxed consistency approaches for data replication
Theory

Papers that describe various important elements of distributed systems design.

Distributed Computing Economics - Jim Gray
Rules of Thumb in Data Engineering - Jim Gray and Prashant Shenoy
Fallacies of Distributed Computing - Peter Deutsch
Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process - also known as FLP [access requires account and/or payment, a free version can be found here]
Unreliable Failure Detectors for Reliable Distributed Systems. A method for handling the challenges of FLP
Lamport Clocks - How do you establish a global view of time when each computer’s clock is independent
The Byzantine Generals Problem
Lazy Replication: Exploiting the Semantics of Distributed Services
Scalable Agreement - Towards Ordering as a Service
Scalable Eventually Consistent Counters over Unreliable Networks - Scalable counting is tough in an unreliable world
Languages and Tools

Issues of distributed systems construction with specific technologies.

Programming Distributed Erlang Applications: Pitfalls and Recipes - Building reliable distributed applications isn’t as simple as merely choosing Erlang and OTP.
Infrastructure

Principles of Robust Timing over the Internet - Managing clocks is essential for even basics such as debugging
Storage

Consistent Hashing and Random Trees
Amazon’s Dynamo Storage Service
Paxos Consensus

Understanding this algorithm is the challenge. I would suggest reading “Paxos Made Simple” before the other papers and again afterward.

The Part-Time Parliament - Leslie Lamport
Paxos Made Simple - Leslie Lamport
Paxos Made Live - An Engineering Perspective - Chandra et al
Revisiting the Paxos Algorithm - Lynch et al
How to build a highly available system with consensus - Butler Lampson
Reconfiguring a State Machine - Lamport et al - changing cluster membership
Implementing Fault-Tolerant Services Using the State Machine Approach: a Tutorial - Fred Schneider
Other Consensus Papers

Mencius: Building Efficient Replicated State Machines for WANs - consensus algorithm for wide-area network
Gossip Protocols (Epidemic Behaviours)

Epidemic Routing Bibliography
How robust are gossip-based communication protocols?
Astrolabe: A Robust and Scalable Technology For Distributed Systems Monitoring, Management, and Data Mining
Epidemic Computing at Cornell
Fighting Fire With Fire: Using Randomized Gossip To Combat Stochastic Scalability Limits
Bi-Modal Multicast
ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review - Gossip-based computer networking
SWIM: Scalable Weakly-consistent Infection-style Process Group Membership Protocol
P2P

Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications
Kademlia: A Peer-to-peer Information System Based on the XOR Metric
Pastry: Scalable, decentralized object location and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems
PAST: A large-scale, persistent peer-to-peer storage utility - storage system atop Pastry
SCRIBE: A large-scale and decentralised application-level multicast infrastructure - wide area messaging atop Pastry


distributedcomputing.info

http://wla.berkeley.edu/~cs61a/fa11/lectures/communication.html

http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?DistributedComputing

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