• Kinect
• Hololence
• VR
• AR

Computers have always been good at calculations and data processing. But to evolve from specialized devices to a universal tool required more efficient ways to “talk” to people.

Early computers communicated primarily with coded text. Gradually they learned to use images. The development of graphical interfaces was key to creating powerful hardware and software systems that anyone could use.

## People & Machines Communicating: Input and Output

“Human-Computer Interaction” is a two-way street: people talk to computers, and they talk to us. We have been endlessly creative in doing both.

Part of the story is about hardware. But much is about software. Applications and drivers tell devices how to communicate, how to perform the tasks we want. The equation remains, as always: hardware + software = useful tool.

Keyboard “glove”

IBM’s Robert Seibel and Nathaniel Rochester conceived this Cold War device for computer operators flying in “high-acceleration aircraft and missiles,” among other places. They anticipated “wearable computers” by decades.

IBM 2250 graphics station

### The Development of the Computer Keyboard

While typewriters were widely used throughout the 1950s to the 1970s, computers were starting to emerge as a consumer friendly product, beginning the age of the computer keyboard as a primary input device. To understand the development of the computer keyboard, its important to understand the development and evolution of the computer. In 1946, the first computer, ENIAC was constructed and teletype was used to input data. As you can see below, the ENIAC computer took up an entire room, hundreds of times larger than the modern computer laptop. What was teletype and how is it different from from modern computer keyboard input?

Teletype and ENIAC computers used cards (similar in shape to index cards) that were inserted into the Teletype while a series of holes called keypunches would be punched into the cards according to which keys were pressed on the teletype machine. After the cards were keypunched by the computer, they were brought over to a card-reader that would analyze the deck of cards as data (tangible memory).

Early Computer Punch card. Courtesy of the Computer History Museum.

1960 Keypunch Reader Courtesy of the Computer History Museum

In 1948 the BINAC computer used a different input/output method, with an electromagnetically controlled teletype to input data and print results. The BINAC is what paved the way for the shape of computers and computer keyboards to come, though it would still take a few more decades to move away from the teletype/punchcard computers. Another punchcard computer popular at the time, was the UNIVAC I, produced in 1951 is also pictured below.

In 1948 the BINAC computer used a different input/output method, with an electromagnetically controlled teletype to input data and print results. The BINAC is what paved the way for the shape of computers and computer keyboards to come, though it would still take a few more decades to move away from the teletype/punchcard computers. Another punchcard computer popular at the time, was the UNIVAC I, produced in 1951 is also pictured below.

1940s ENIAC Keypunch Printer and Card Sorter in operation. Image Courtesy of the Computer History Museum

1960s UNIVAC Computer in Operation. Notice the Teletype Input Device to his left. Courtesy of the Computer History Museum

In 1964, Bell Labs and M.I.T. created the MULTICS computer, a time-sharing, multi-user system with VDT, a video display terminal. Text was instantly visible on the screen as it was typed, which made communicating commands, programs, and controls to computers more efficient than previous teletype methods of input. By the late 1970s all computers used VDT and electric keyboards. It was simply the most straight-forward and user-friendly method of interacting with computers (no stack of cards to punch holes in and keep organized).
The first keyboards that were sold in the 1970s were all built from scratch, piece by piece, and were heavy as they were fully mechanical. Since so much time and effort was needed to create these keyboards, and since the target market was primarily computer programmers and engineers, they were built for function and not for visual aesthetics. This meant there wasn’t a keyboard cover or cabinet, making the keyboard more or less exposed.

n 1964, Bell Labs and M.I.T. created the MULTICS computer, a time-sharing, multi-user system with VDT, a video display terminal. Text was instantly visible on the screen as it was typed, which made communicating commands, programs, and controls to computers more efficient than previous teletype methods of input. By the late 1970s all computers used VDT and electric keyboards. It was simply the most straight-forward and user-friendly method of interacting with computers (no stack of cards to punch holes in and keep organized).
The first keyboards that were sold in the 1970s were all built from scratch, piece by piece, and were heavy as they were fully mechanical. Since so much time and effort was needed to create these keyboards, and since the target market was primarily computer programmers and engineers, they were built for function and not for visual aesthetics. This meant there wasn’t a keyboard cover or cabinet, making the keyboard more or less exposed.

1970s Altiar Computer with Exposed Keyboard Courtesy of the Computer History Museum

There were also keyboards that were built into personal computers at the time. In the mid-1970s Imsai and Altair created the first small PCs for consumer use, generally referred to as the S100 computer systems. These machines were built piece by piece, and provided the bare essentials. There were no hard drives or floppy discs on these first machines, so there was no way to save data on them. The keyboard was located on the front panel of the computer, as a set of key switches. If users wanted a standard keyboard, IBM sold a converted electric typewriter, but as supplies were limited and the product wasn’t in high demand many users had to convert their own electric typewriters if they wanted an easier to use keyboard to enter programming code. Additionally, a second keyboard had to be connected for data entry. It wasn’t provided with purchase, requiring that users had to build their own.

There were also keyboards that were built into personal computers at the time. In the mid-1970s Imsai and Altair created the first small PCs for consumer use, generally referred to as the S100 computer systems. These machines were built piece by piece, and provided the bare essentials. There were no hard drives or floppy discs on these first machines, so there was no way to save data on them. The keyboard was located on the front panel of the computer, as a set of key switches. If users wanted a standard keyboard, IBM sold a converted electric typewriter, but as supplies were limited and the product wasn’t in high demand many users had to convert their own electric typewriters if they wanted an easier to use keyboard to enter programming code. Additionally, a second keyboard had to be connected for data entry. It wasn’t provided with purchase, requiring that users had to build their own.

In 1981, IBM released their first PC. In 1986, it came equipped with the Model M keyboard. This computer keyboard was wildly successful because it was so easy to use, users didn’t have to convert their typewriters or provide their own build of keyboard to use as an input device for their computers. The Model M was a mechanical keyboard, and used the highest quality construction, giving typists the satisfaction of tactile feedback, acute accuracy and comfort. The only draw backs on this keyboard was that the “Shift” and “Enter” keys were reportedly too small for the majority of user’s preferences. Because of this, IBM made and sold “Keytop Expanders” which fit over the shift and enter key-switches to expand the keys. All of the keyboards at this time were limited in that they were only offered in two colors: beige and grey, until the late 1980s when black was introduced as an option.

In the 1990s membrane switches began to replace the mechanical key switch, as it was quieter, weighed less, and suited the needs of the new laptop generation. This was also an advantage for the manufactures because membrane keyboards were much cheaper to produce. Unfortunately the quality of the keyboard significantly dropped as these superficial keyboard aesthetics dominated (slimmer, quieter, lighter weight, easier to be mobile with). The technology and mechanics of these keyboards will be detailed in future chapters, and mechanical keyboard information can be found here: on our Mechanical Keyboard Guide. Here’s a photo showing the dramatic difference between early Apple mechanical keyboards (1983), and decades later the modern non-mechanical Apple keyboards (2010).

Apple-Keyboard-1983-vs-2010

Other changes in keyboard design, whether or not improving upon function, have included the folding keyboard, the water-proof (and washable) keyboard, the keyboard that also functions as a mouse, thumb-sized keyboards (for mobile devices and travel) and virtual touch-screen keyboards.

### The History and Evolution of Keyboard Layouts

The most widely used keyboard layout is QWERTY, named as such for the positioning of the keys in the top left row. Christopher Latham Sholes and Carlos Glidden produced the first typewriter featuring the QWERTY layout in 1874 and though there have been minor changes over the past centuries, for the most part it has remained consistent. One of the differences of the original QWERTY layout from the current version was its lack of a “1” key, and consequently “!” key. Instead of typing the numeral one, typists would use the lower-case L (l). To type an exclamation mark, typists would use a period (.), hit backspace, then type an apostrophe (‘) above it. Another key added in later versions was the “=” and “+” key. These symbols were used very infrequently on typewriters as it was generally assumed that Adding Machines were used to do all the mathematical notation. If typists wanted to produce a plus-sign, they would type a hyphen (-), hit backspace, then type a colon (:). When they wanted to type an equal sign, they would type a hyphen (-), hit backspace, and then type an underscore (_). At the start of the QWERTY layout, typewriters were only able to print UPPER CASE letters, as the “shift key” had not yet been introduced. At the end of the 19th century in 1894, The Duplex full keyboard brought lower case letters to the typewriter by featuring separate keys for lower case and UPPER CASE letters. There were twice as many keys with this design which eventually lead to the invention of the “shift key.” The shift key allowed for a consolidated keyboard similar to the first models that only typed capital letters, as well as the use of both lower and uppercase characters with the same key. Additionally, having a shift key allowed the numerical keys to be shared with special characters such as the ampersand (&) and percent (%) signs for further keyboard consolidation. One problem that arose after the shift key was added was that holding down the shift key to type more than one letter at a time was particularly difficult on early typewriters. This lead to the “SHIFT LOCK” key, later to be renamed “CAPS LOCK” by modern typists. Shift lock allowed typists to switch back and forth between lower and upper case characters, as well as numerical andspecial characters with ease.

1897, Jewett 4 Duplex typewriter – Courtesy of the Martin Howard Collection at antiquetypewriters.com

QWERTY layouts were developed as a means to slow typists down. In the beginning stages of the typewriter, people typed so quickly, that they often jammed the keys as they flew up to hit the typewriter ribbon. To prevent this, QWERTY was born to decrease typing efficiency and speed. This is why, rather than placing the most commonly used letters in convenient, central, finger placements, they are instead found in awkward locations, like the “A” key under the left pinkie finger. Likewise, the less commonly used letters are placed in the prime areas of the layout. Notice, for example how the “J” and “K” keys are under the right pointer and middle fingers. With these inconvenient placements, more than 50% of keystrokes take place on the top row, and roughly 30% take place on the bottom row. That means that less than 20% of all keystrokes actually occur where your fingers are centrally placed, the row commonly referred to as “home row.” So if this layout is so inefficient and awkward, why are we still using it today? The QWERTY layout has stuck with us for the past century for two reasons: it was the first established layout that everyone grew accustomed to and accepted; and when computers began to come into play, the leaders in the computer keyboard industry opted to keep the QWERTY layout on their manufactured keyboards- effectively binding generations of typists to an inefficient layout. When IBM and the other major manufacturers chose to stick with QWERTY, everyone else followed their lead. Thus they established the standard in layout design for decades to come- regardless of how inefficient and outdated.

Dvorak Simplified Layouts:

The QWERTY model keyboard is still used today by some of the world’s fastest typists, but imagine how much faster and more efficient typing could be if the keys we use most often were under the strongest of our fingers in the easiest to access areas. That’s where Dvorak comes in. The Dvorak simplified layout was introduced in 1936 by Dr. August Dvorak, and offers a keyboard layout that is more intuitive and efficient for modern typists. Dr. Dvorak conducted extensive research on the English language (and other languages using the Roman alphabet), and studied the physiology of the hand. Dr. Dvorak’s research brought forth not only the Dvorak layout, but also two additional keyboard layouts designed for people with one hand: one keyboard for those with only one right hand, and the other for those with only a left.

## The Mouse

Prototype Engelbart mouse (replica)

SRI engineer Bill English built the first Engelbart mouse prototype, which used knife-edge wheels and had space for only one button.

Trackballs, light pens, and other clever pointing devices were widespread. Then the mouse was invented. Twice. (Well, at least twice.)

Doug Engelbart reportedly conceived the mouse during a conference lecture in 1961. His first design, in 1963, used rolling wheels inspired by mechanical area-measuring devices called planimeters invented in the 1800s.

Engineers at Germany’s Telefunken also invented a mouse in the mid-1960s. First described in 1968, their version used a rolling ball—essentially a small, upside-down trackball—which became the standard for decades.

Who Named the Mouse?

When asked who named his most famous invention, Doug Engelbart recalled, “No one can remember. It just looked like a mouse with a tail, and we all called it that.” The wire “tail” originally came out under the user’s wrist.

A Menagerie of Mice

The basic idea of the mouse is simple, but there are many variations on the theme. Engineers have experimented with different shapes, numbers of buttons, internal mechanisms, and aesthetics – as well as with the part of the human body that activates it.

968年，鼠标的原型诞生；
1968年12月9日，世界上的第一个鼠标诞生于美国斯坦福大学。它的发明者是道格拉斯·恩格尔巴特博士。这只鼠标的设计目的，是为了用鼠标来代替键盘那繁琐的指令，从而使计算机的操作更加简便。这只鼠标的外形是一只小木头盒子，其工作原理是由它底部的小球带动枢轴转动，继而带动变阻器改变阻值来产生位移信号，并将信号传至主机。
1980年代初，出现了第一代的光电鼠标，这类光电鼠标具有比机械鼠标更高的精确度。但是它必须工作在特殊的印有细微格栅的光电鼠标垫上。这种鼠标过高的成本限制了其使用范围。
1981年，第一只商业化鼠标诞生。（最早于Mac广泛应用）
1983年，罗技发明了第一只光电机械式鼠标，也就是我们今天所说的机械鼠标。这种鼠标结构成为了事实上的行业标准。
1999年，安捷伦公司（Agilent,后改组为安华高, Avago）发布了IntelliEye光电引擎，继而市场上出现了不需要专用鼠标垫的光电鼠标，光电鼠标的普及由此开始。
2003年，罗技与微软分别推出以蓝牙为通讯协定的蓝牙鼠标。
2005年，罗技与安华高合作推出第一款激光鼠标（无线，可充电, Logitech MX1000）。
2006年，第一只克服玻璃障碍的有线激光鼠标问世（DEXIN, ML45）。
2006年，蓝牙激光鼠标问世（Acrox）。
2008年，微软推出采用Blue Track技术的蓝光鼠标，几乎兼容所有界面（Microsoft SideWinder X8）。
2009年，罗技推出DarkField激光追踪技术。此技术基本上仍是采用激光辨识，结合运用在实验室的“暗视野（Darkfield）”显微镜技术，让鼠标也能看到透明材质中的小瑕疵、灰尘、微粒等微小物质，并借此提供辨识定位资讯。（Logitech M905、M950）[1]
2009年，苹果公司推出新鼠标Magic Mouse，采用承袭自iPhone、iPod Touch、MacBook的多点触控技术，把所有鼠标按键、滚轮都拿掉，只以一整片多点触控板，就能提供等同一般鼠标的左、右键，以及360度滚轮功能，并能以两指操作更多手势功能。[2]

## Laser Printers

Dover laser printer

The Dover was a prototype for Xerox’s first commercial laser printer, the 9700, which printed 120 pages per minute on standard paper.

Xerox physicist Gary Starkweather realized in 1967 that exposing a copy machine’s light-sensitive drum to a paper original wasn’t the only way to create an image. A computer could “write” it with a laser instead.

Xerox wasn’t interested. So in 1971, Starkweather transferred to Xerox PARC, away from corporate oversight. Within a year, he had built the world’s first laser printer, launched a new era in computer printing…and earning billions for Xerox.

Unlike the company’s Xerography process, however, Xerox had to share the laser printer market. IBM and Canon soon developed competing products.

## Input Devices: Sometimes Clever, Sometimes Strange

Input Cabinet of Curiosities

Designers have been playfully creative in finding ways for humans to talk to machines. They’ve given us keyboards, mice, trackballs, joysticks, tablets, switches, gloves, light pens, microphones, cameras, and more. Each is best for a particular application.

It is still an active area for innovation, so watch for even more creative ideas in the future. Brain wave analysis, maybe?

Tablet, Stylus, Eye-tracking, trackball, Joystick, scanner, vr gloves

## The Diversity of Output Devices

The Sword of Damocles: Early head-mounted display

Harvard computer science professor Ivan Sutherland created this virtual reality head-mounted display, jokingly referred to as “The Sword of Damocles” because of the large overhead beam required to support its weight. His student Bob Sproull assisted with the design. An early application showed a three-dimensional wire-frame virtual room that users like this man could explore by moving their heads.

Whether with a realtime display or a permanent printed record, many computers need to communicate visually with humans to be useful. Hundreds of mostly clever – but sometimes silly – devices have been invented to do that.

The cycle of innovation and competition is fierce. Even popular mainstays like the daisy-wheel printer quickly become museum pieces as they are displaced by the next great idea.

3d display, print chain, glasses

## 显示器

CRT显示器历经发展，显示质量越来越好，但显像管要求电子枪发出的电子束从一侧偏向另一侧的角度不能大于90度，这使得显示器的厚度要与屏幕的对角线一样长，对于具有更大可视面积的显示器来说，就意味着更厚的机身和更大的体积。

1992年，瑞典专业雇员联盟（TCO）在MPR-2的基础上对节能、辐射提出了更高的环保要求，即TCO92标准。TCO标准经过不断扩充和改进，逐渐演变成现在通用的世界性标准：TCO92包括了对显示器的电磁辐射、自动电源关闭、耗电量、防火及用电安全、TCO验证证明这五个方面的标准；TCO95又加入了对环保和人体工程学的要求，范围扩大到整个微机系统；TCO99则提出了更全面、更严格的环保及用户舒适度的标准。当然通过TCO认证的显示器的售价也有所提高，但是物有所值。
LE显示器
LE显示器

1、CRT显示器

2、LED显示器
LED就是light emitting diode ，发光二极管的英文缩写，简称LED。它是一种通过控制半导体发光二极管的显示方式，用来显示文字、图形、图像、动画、行情、视频、录像信号等各种信息的显示屏幕。
3、LCD显示器
LCD显示器 即液晶显示器,优点是机身薄，占地小，辐射小，给人以一种健康产品的形象。但实际情况并非如此，使用液晶显示屏不一定可以保护到眼睛，这需要看各人使用计算机的习惯，。
4、3D显示器
3D显示器一直被公认为显示技术发展的终极梦想，多年来有许多企业和研究机构从事这方面的研究。日本、欧美、韩国等发达国家和地区早于20世纪80年代就纷纷涉足立体显示技术的研发，于90年代开始陆续获得不同程度的研究成果，现已开发出需佩戴立体眼镜和不需佩戴立体眼镜的两大立体显示技术体系。传统的3D电影在荧幕上有两组图像（来源于在拍摄时的互成角度的两台摄影机），观众必须戴上偏光镜才能消除重影（让一只眼只受一组图像），形成视差（parallax），产生立体感。

## 耳机

Sony開創了隨身音樂世代，Walkman至今仍然深深烙印在許多人心中。（圖片來源：網路資源）